Home Knowledge 167 Important Scientific Discoveries of Scientists  | Biology and Botany Questions

167 Important Scientific Discoveries of Scientists  | Biology and Botany Questions

by Naz khaliq
scientific discoveries
scientific discoveries of scientists

We have made a list of some of the important scientific discoveries of Scientists that will not only increase your knowledge but will also help you to prepare for your PPSC, FPSC and other educators’ tests. Many scientists have done wonders in the field of science and their scientific discoveries have helped people.

It has also opened a new door to the mysterious nature. When it comes to prepare Botany questions or even Biology questions, this becomes a must to get knowledge about important scientific discoveries. Here is the list of scientific discoveries with the scientists names:

Scientific Discoveries With Scientists Names and Years:

S#YearScientist NameScientific Discoveries
1 384-322 B.C. AristotleHe is considered the father of Biology and started the study of morphology.
2460-370 B.C.HippocratesHe is considered the father of medicine and used plants in preparing medicine
3370- 283 B.C.Theophrastus
He is considered the father of Botany and gave the description of 480 types of plants in “Historia Plantarum”.
4 1590
Z.Janssen and H.JanssenThey made the first operational compound microscope.
51665Robert HookeObserved small compartments in a thin slice of cork and termed them cells
A.van LeeuwenhoekDiscovered Bacteria
7 1675
MalpighiMade different detailed studies in plant anatomy
8 1682

N.GrewFather of plant anatomy. He was the first to describe the reproductive parts ni plants
91694R. J.Camerarius
Discovered sexuality in plants and gave the importance of pollination
10 1717
Thomas FairchildThe first plant hybrid was developed by him
111727Stephen HalesFather or plant physiology
121753 Carolus LinnaeusFather of plant taxonomy. He gave “Binominal system of nomenclature” and wrote two books, i.e, Species Plantarum and Genera Plantarum
13 1759

Father of embryology
FontanaObserved Nucleoli
GoetheGave theory of metamorphosis of plant organs
Lamarck, TreviranusThe term Biology was coined by them

Jean Baptiste de LamarckProposed the theory of inheritance of acquired characters…Use and disuse of organs

A.P.de CandolleThe term Taxonomy was coined by him
Pelletier CaventouChlorophyll term was given by him
AmieiPollen tube was observed by him
21 1824

H.J. Dutrochetgave the concept that “All tissues are a group of cells”
EthrenbergThe term bacterium was coined by him
23 1828

Robert BrownExplained the movement of particles, i.e Brownian movements
BrongniartHe classified plants into Phanerogams and Cryptogams
Robert BrownDiscovered the nucleus
Felix DujardinGave the term sarcode to the living substance of the cell

Hugo Von Mohldescribed cell division and explained the importance of cell division
M.J.schleidenDescribed nucleolus
29 1837
J.E. PurkinjeCoined the term protoplasm
M.BerzeliusCoined the term protein
31 1839
M.J. schleiden and T.SchwannProposed Cell theory

Mayerdescribed the conversion of light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis
K.NageliProposed that plant cells arise from pre_existing cells

W.HofmeisterObserved fertilization and described nuclear division in Tradescantia
KollickerDiscovered mitochondrion
36 1851
Q.HofmeisterExplained the alternation of generations
R.VirchowDiscovered that new cells arise from pre_existing cells

Charles DarwinIntroduced the theory of Natural selection and published the book “Origin of species”

De Bary and Max SchultzeProposed “Protoplasmic theory”
40 1862

George Bentham and J.D. HookerWrote the book “Genera Plantarum” and introduced the natural system of classification
41 1864
KollickerCoined the term “cytoplasm”
Louis PasteurIntroduced “Germ theory of disease”
SchultzeExplained protoplasmic bridges
HansteinHe observed Sieve plates
E.HaeckelThe term “plastid” was coined by him
46 1866
Gregor J.MendelFather or genetics
J.HuxleyStated that “Protoplasm is the physical basis of life
F.MiescherFirst of all isolated nuclein (DNA) from pus cells
49 1870
W. HisMicrotome was invented by him for cutting sections
F. MiescherSeparated nucleoprotein and nucleus
H.Foldefined astral rays
Joseph ListerDeveloped pure culture of bacteria
W.KuhneThe term ‘Enzymes’ was introduced by him
W.FlemmingCoined the term chromatin
55 1880
E.StrasburgerCoined the term nucleoplasm and cytoplasm and described cell division in plants
56: 1881
E.G BalbianiDiscovered salivary gland chromosomes
57: 1881
FockeProposed the term xenia
W.FlemmingCoined the term mitosis
59: 1883
W.RouxDescribed that chromosomes have the units of heredity
SchimperCoined the term chloroplast

Van BenedenProposed that gametes consist of half the number of chromosomes as compared to that body cell
GodlewskiDescribed the cause of the upward movement of water
63: 1884
E.StrasburgerFertilization in angiosperms was described by him
64: 1886
Van Tieghemgave stelar theory

A. Engler and A.E. PrantlA phylogenetic system of classification was given by them
W.Waldeyerintroduced the tern chromosome
T.BoveriDiscovered centriole
68: 1890

R.AltmanDiscovered mitochondrion but named it bioplast
69: 1892

IvanowskiProved the existence of viruses

E. StrasburgerDemonstrated occurrence of reduction division in plan

Dixon and JollyExplained the cause of the ascent of sap (Transpiration pull theory)
721898C.Bendacoined the term mitochondrion instead of bioplast
73: 1898

S.G. NawaschinShe discovered double fertilization in angiosperms

E.BuchnerGave the name zymase for enzymes obtained from yeast cells
75: 1899

R.AltmanTerm nucleic acid was given by him to nuclein of Meischer

E. VON tschermak, Hugo de Vries and Carl CorrensMendel’s work was rediscovered by them independently
771901 E.StrasburgerTerm plasmodesmata was given by him
77: 1902

C.E.McClungSex chromosomes in grasshoppers were observed by him
78: 1902W.S. SuttonChromosomes theory of heredity was given by him

Robert Koch (Nobel prize)Bacteria were cultured by him first of all (study of tuberculosis)
80 1905
W. BatesonTerm ‘Genetics’ was given by him
81: 1905
J.B. Farmer and MooreCoined the term ‘meiosis’
HarrisonIntroduced the technique for growing tissues in a culture medium
83: 1907
RosenbergExplained apospory
84: 1908
WinklerDescribed apomixis
85: 1909
W.L. Johannsengave the term gene
A.Kossel(nobel prize)Explained the chemistry of the nucleus
P.RousRous sarcoma virus was explained by him
88: 1915
Richard WilstatterChlorophyll was studied by him
A.StollExplained the structure and chemistry of chlorophyll
W.Garner and Allardphotoperiodism was discovered by them

R.FeulgenDeveloped test for DNA which is called as Feulgen reaction

J.C.BoseShowed that pulsatory activity of cortical cells results in ascent of sap
T.SvedbergDiscovered ultracentrifuge
94: 1926

J.HutchinsonGave the ‘Phylogenetic system of classification’ of angiosperms
H.J.MullerMutations were produced through X_rays

GriffithPerformed transformation experiments with Pnelunococcus

Alexander FlemingPenicillin was discovered
MunchThe mass flow hypothesis was given by him

Outto H.Warburg (Nibel Prize)Showed action of respiratory enzymes
M. Knoll and.E.RuskaElectron microscope was invented

T.H.Morgan (Nobel Prize)Described the role of chromosomes in the transmission of heredity
F.Kogl.H.Smith and ExlebenFirst if all isolated IAA from.human urine
ZernikeProposed principles of phase contrast microscopy
K.V.ThimannDemonstrated IAA in Rhizopus
A.G.TansleyCoined the term ecosystem
106: 1936
M.C.ChailakhyanDemonstrated flowering hormone, i.e florigen
F.GustaffsonParthenocarpic fruit was produced by applying IAA

H.krebs (nobel prize 1953)Citric acid cycle (Krebs Cycle) was discovered

Yabuta, Hayashi amd SumukiGibberellin was crystallized

R.HillDiscovered light reaction of photosynthesis

Oswald TippoA phylogenetic system of classification of plants was given

Lederberg and TatumConjugation in bacteria was discovered
113 1944

O.T.Avery, C.M.MeLeod and M.MeCarthyExplained the role of DNA in heredity transmission in bacteria (transformation)
114 1945
K.R.porterThe endoplasmic reticulum was discovered
S.A.WaksmanDiscovery of Streptomycin
116: 1946
H.J.Muller(Nobel Prize)Induced mutation by X_rays
117: 1946
J.B.SumnerFirst enzyme (Urease) was isolated
118:1952 Zinder and LederbergTransduction was discovered
1191953 F.A LipmanCoenzyme – A was discovered
120:1954 D.I.ArnonObserved photophosphorylation
121: 1955 PaladeDiscovered ribosomes in animal cells
122: 1955 C.de. DuveCoined the term lysosome
123:1955 C.O.miller and SkoongDiscovered kinetin
124:1955A.H.T.TheorellDescribed nature of oxidising enzymes
125:1957 H.F.ConratShowed that RNA is genetic material of tobacco mosaic virus
126:1958 G.W. Beadle, E.L. Tatum and K.Lederberg (Nobel Prize)One gene one enzyme theory
127: 1959 S.Ochoa and A.Kornberg (Nobel Prize)Invitro synthesis of polynucleotides of RNA and DNA
128:1959 F.Sanger (Nobel Prize)Structure of insulin
129: 1959 RobertsonExplained the concept of unit membrane
130:1961BeeversGlyoxysomes were discovered
131:1961 Nirenberg and MalthaelBroke genetic code
132:1961Malvin Calvin (nobel prize)Observed path of carbon in photosynthesis
133:1962 MonkeObserved thylakoids in chloro
134:1963 Chance and Parsons, Smith and Fernadez MoranElementary particles in mitochondria were discovered
135:1963 Nass and NassDNA was discovered in the mitochondrion
136:1964 Park and BigginsQuantasomes were discovered in chloroplast
137: 1965 F.Jacob and J.Monod (Nobel prize)Gave operon model of gene control
138: 1966 P.Rous and C.Huggins (Nobel Prize)Worked on cancer.
1391967A.L. Takhtajanthe phylogenetic system of classification of angiosperms was given
140:1967 M.D. Hatch and C.R. Slack Gave Hatch and Slack’s pathway
141: 1968

R.Holley, H.G. Khorana and M.W. Nirenberg (Nobel Prize)Determined base sequence of RNA and studied genetic code
142:1969 WhittakerGave 5_kingdom classification of organisms
H.g.KhoranaGene synthesis for RNA
TolbertPeroxisomes were discovered
145: 1969
M.Delbruck, A.D. Hershey and S.E. LuriaStudied reproduction in viruses
H.HarrisGave the technique of DNA_RNA hybridization
147:1972 Singer and NicolsonFluid mosaic model of plasma membrane was given
148: 1974 C. De DuveLysosomes were discovered
G.E. PaladeDiscovered ribosomes
150:1975 H.Temin and D.Baltimore (Nobel Prize)Reverse transcription was discovered in the sarcoma virus
R.DulbeccoObserved viruses as the cause of cancer
152:1978 ) W.Arber and D.Nathans (Nobel Prizeapplication of restriction enzymes
F.Sanger (Nobel Prize)Determination of base sequence of the gene
154: 1980
Paul Berg (Nobel Prize)Explained gene splicing
155:1983 ) Barbara Mc Clintock(Nobel PrizeDiscovery of jumping genes or mobile genetic elements
156:1989 M.Bishop and H.Varmus (Nobel Prize)Discovery of oncogenes
Nehar and Sakmann (Nobel Prize)Role of single ion channels in the cell
158:1992 Fischer and E.Krebs (Nobel Prize)Reverse phosphorylation
Roberts and Sharp (Nobel Prize)Discovered split genes
160:1995Lewis, Weischaus and Nuesslein Volhard(Nobel Prize)Experiments were performed on Drosophila to control early embryonic development through a genetic mechanism
161: 1996 )
Peter C.Doberty and Rolf M.Zinkernagel (Nobel PrizeDiscovered the way by which the body detects virus-infected cells
162:1997 Prusiner et, al. (Nobel Prize)Discovered Prions which are responsible for scraple disease in sheep
163:1998 )

Robert Furchgott, Ferid Murad, Louis Ignarro( Nobel PrizeDiscovered Viagra as an anti_inpotence drug. Also discovered the role of nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system
164:1999 Gunter Blobel (Nobel Prize)Worked on protein signalling, which helps in understanding different human diseases
165:2000 Arvid Carlson, Paul Greengard and Eric Candle(Nobel Prize)Worked on the flow of signals in the nervous system, which will help in developing medicines for dangerous diseases like Parkinson’s disease and Schizophrenia
Leland Hartwell, Paul Nurse and Timothy Hunt (Nobel Prize)Worked on mechanism of control of cell cycle which is significant in biomedical research for cancer treatment
167 2002 Sydney-Brenner, John E. Sulston and H.Robert Horvitz (Nobel Prize)Worked on genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death

This list of scientific discoveries will help you to prepare for your NA, GA, PPSC and FPSC tests. These are helpful to prepare Botany MCQs and Biology MCQs. This list of important scientific discoveries is very important and you should share it with your friends.

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